Anxiety Disorder – Types And Treatments

You must have some people around you who overthink everything and people label them as more sensitive or over-sensitive. They will encounter the same situation as others, but their thought process is different.

Sometimes they are so anxious about something that others get annoyed and they are like why he is not listening to us and what is wrong with him, it’s a simple thing why he is so worried about it. Just take a pause and try to put yourself in their shoes, so you can understand their problem and you must be aware that he or she can be suffering from some anxiety disorder.

What is anxiety?

When you have a feeling of fear and apprehension about the future then you are having anxiety. If this anxiety is of mild or moderate level then usually no one thinks about it seriously and just considers it a routine type of stress. But then comes a severe type of anxiety and at extreme level panic attacks. They are the levels where your daily routine life and activities are severely disturbed and you are unable to fulfill your daily tasks.
You should be aware that anxiety is a mental disorder.

What are the 6 types of anxiety disorder?

  1. Generalized anxiety disorder
  2. Phobias(Specific phobia, social phobia)
  3. Panic disorder
  4. Acute stress disorder
  5. Post-traumatic stress disorder
  6. OCD

These anxiety disorders have early-onset like in teens or early twenties and the female gender is more prone to develop them but it has a waxing and waning course during a lifetime. So one day you will have it and another day not but it will come again after some time.

Causes of Anxiety:

If you want to know the reason why you are having it then there are two types of theories one is the genetic theory which claims that there are specific genes in people which make them prone to develop a more anxious personality or anxiety disorders.

Other theory which neurochemical theory claims that there are some neurotransmitters like serotonin, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, Cholecystokinin, Adenosine are involved in producing anxiety.

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

Excessive worry for 50% of their time at least 6 months about a number of events and you find it difficult to control, then you are having a generalized anxiety disorder and you are getting worried about any social, domestic, political issue irrationally.


If there is a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation then it can be a phobia. The phobia typically results in a rapid onset of fear. This fear is must be out of proportion to the actual danger or situation. There are a lot of types of phobia ranging from insects to airplanes.

Panic disorder:

If someone is having discrete episodes of panic attacks that are 15-30 minutes of rapid, escalating intense anxiety with physiologic discomfort then he/she is suffering from panic disorder. The most dangerous thing about panic attacks is that they are recurrent and you will have it again and again and you will have persistent worry about having additional attacks. 50-60-% of them can have major depression in their lifetime.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD):

Patients who have an obsession with some thoughts and actions to get rid of such thoughts are called OCD. A famous example is hand washing repeatedly because somebody is obsessed with the thought that his hands are dirty and he acts to wash it over and over to the level of sickness. Again there are a lot of types such as obsessions and compulsions.

Posttraumatic stress disorder:

It is characterized by the re-experiencing of an extremely traumatic event. The duration can more than one month. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress in social, occupational, or other important areas of life. They can have difficulty falling or staying asleep, irritability or outburst of anger, difficulty concentrating.

How to get help?

These disorders require a combination of therapies that includes medicines and behavioral therapy. These people need help which can be professional help like from some psychiatrists or from significant people in the family.

Each disorder requires specific behavior modifications like in general anxiety disorder it is required to prioritize issues or keeping a journal of activities.

Phobia needs systematic desensitization or flooding where a person is exposed to fear-producing situations abruptly so they can feel that nothing is going to happen but this technique is not recommended now.

Patients who suffer from the Panic disorder also need cognitive behavioral therapy, education, reinsurance, elimination of caffeine, alcohol, and drugs.

OCD requires a much professional approach like electroconvulsive therapy, Psychosurgery along with drugs and behavioral therapy.

Post-traumatic stress disorder requires drug and behavior therapy combinations.

Mental disorders are not taken seriously in society and people could not recognize that someone actually needs help and it’s a serious thing. Along with that, a stigma is attached to these disorders and people do not discuss or talk about it and kept suffering. Look out if you or somebody else is suffering from it then go get help or provide help because these issues are manageable if intervened timely.

By Nuzhat Sher

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